伊戈爾·安索夫生平

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伊戈爾·安索夫(H.igor Ansoff)

戰略管理的鼻祖:伊戈爾·安索夫(H.igor Ansoff,1918-2002)

伊戈爾·安索夫生平

  • 1918年,安索夫出生於海參崴(符拉迪沃斯托克)。
  • 1924年,安索夫隨家庭搬到莫斯科。
  • 1936年,安索夫的全家移民到了美國紐約。
  • 1950年,安索夫加盟美國軍方軍事智囊機構蘭德基金會(Rand Foundation),參與研究美國軍事戰略的研制和計劃工作
  • 1956年,安索夫進入洛克希德公司(Lockheed Corporation)工作,後來成為該公司的副總裁。
  • 1957年,安索夫根據自己的研究心得在著名的《哈佛商業評論》上發表了一篇討論多角化經營戰略的論文,提出了「產品市場匹配」的概念。
  • 1963年,45歲的安索夫進入卡內基-梅隆大學經營管理研究生院(Carnegie-Mellon’s Graduate School of Business Administration),從事專業的戰略管理研究和教學。
  • 1965年,安索夫正式出版他的代表作《公司戰略》,本書也是他的成名之作。
  • 1972年,在論文《戰略管理思想》中,安索夫正式提出「戰略管理」的概念。
  • 1973年,安索夫應邀來到比利時的歐洲高級管理學院(European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management)任教。
  • 1976年,出版《從戰略計劃到戰略管理》。
  • 1979年,出版《戰略管理論》。本書與1965年出版的《公司戰略》、1976年出版《從戰略計劃到戰略管理》,是公認的戰略管理開山之作。
  • 1983年,安索夫回到美國,在加州聖地亞哥任美國國際大學(US International University)戰略管理高級教授(Distinguished Professor of Strategic Management),開辦戰略管理碩士、博士學位課程。除此外,他還注冊成立一家戰略管理咨詢顧問公司,向各企業提供戰略規劃和戰略管理的咨詢服務。
  • 2002年7月14日,安索夫病逝於加州的聖地亞哥,享年83歲。去世前是聖地亞哥美國國際大學特級教授、安索夫聯誼會主席、傑米尼(Gemini)咨詢公司的董事

戰略管理的鼻祖:伊戈爾·安索夫

 安索夫在戰略管理中的特殊地位最主要表現在對戰略管理(Strategic Management)的開創性研究,由於他的開創性研究終於使他成為這門學科的一代宗師。作為戰略管理的一代宗師,他首次提出公司戰略概念、戰略管理概念、戰略規劃系統理論、企業競爭優勢概念、以及把戰略管理與混亂環境聯系起來的權變理論。因此,管理學界把安索夫尊稱為戰略管理的鼻祖。倫敦商學院客座教授加里·哈默爾(Gary Hamel)是這樣評論安索夫的:安索夫無愧於公司戰略鼻祖的稱號。盡管用今天的眼光來看,安索夫的方法過於強調結構完美和確定性,但他畢竟是在曆史上第一次運用適當的語言、程序,分析現代工業企業並明確地界定公司戰略中的深層次問題,包括公司如何成長,如何尋求合作,如何借用外力等等。著名管理學評論家海勒爾(Robert Heller)把安索夫譽為戰略規劃之父。

 安索夫的偉大不僅在於他提出了一套廣為學術界、企業管理實務界所接受的戰略管理理論和方法(Methodology)、程序、範式(Paradigm),而且在於他能成功地把戰略的理論、方法與實踐的範式等,引進學術的殿堂里。同時,他還把它們帶入企業的董事局、經理室等。在那里,安索夫的這些理論、程序和範式深深地烙進了不少具有影響力的企業家腦子里。因此,深入了解安索夫對於戰略管理理論、戰略管理實踐、營造企業競爭優勢和提升企業競爭力等等,都是具有重大理論意義和實踐價值的。尤其是今天,由於戰略管理理論與實踐的迅猛發展,各種戰略管理分支學科、學派、理論、概念、程序、範式等等層出不窮,以至管理實務者、管理理論研究者以及有志於戰略管理理論的初學者無不感到無所適從。在這樣的背景下,通過了解安索夫,理解戰略管理一些概念的發源、本義和實質等等,是深入理解和准確把握戰略管理理論的有效方法之一。

主要著作

  • 《公司戰略》
  • 《戰略管理概念》
  • 《從戰略規劃到戰略管理》
  • 《戰略管理》
  • 《植入戰略管理》

 其中,1979 年出版的《戰略管理》和1984年出版的《植入戰略管理》兩書不僅進一步完善了他的戰略管理體系,還為戰略管理理論提供了一系列實踐方法和措施,使自己的主張得以有效貫徹和落實。

 《戰略管理》與《公司戰略》、《從戰略計劃到戰略管理》被公認為是戰略管理的開山之作。

伊戈爾·安索夫(Igor Ansoff)英文簡介

Igor Ansoff (1918-July 14, 2002) was an applied mathematician and business manager. He is known as the father of Strategic management.

Ansoff was born in Vladivostok, Russia, in 1918. He emigrated to the United States with his family and graduated from New York City's Stuyvesant High School in 1937. Ansoff studied General Engineering at the Stevens Institute of Technology and continued his education there, receiving his Master of Science degree in the Dynamics of Rigid Bodies. Following Stevens Institute, he studied at Brown University where he received a Doctorate in applied mathematics with a major in Mathematical Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity and a minor in Vibration. After coming to California he joined UCLA in the Senior Executive Program. He was a distinguished professor at United States International University (now Alliant International University) for 17 years, where several institutes continue his work in strategic management research.

During World War II, he was a member of the U.S. Naval Reserve, and served as a liaison with the Russian Navy and as an instructor in physics at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Professionally, Ansoff is known worldwide for his research in three specific areas:

  • The concept of environmental turbulence;
  • The contingent strategic success paradigm, a concept that has been validated by numerous doctoral dissertations;
  • Real-time strategic management.

Marketing and MBA students are usually familiar with his Product-Market Growth Matrix, a tool he created to plot generic strategies for growing a business via existing or new products, in existing or new markets.

He has consulted with hundreds of multinational corporations including, Philips, General Electric, Gulf, IBM, Sterling and Westinghouse.

To honor his body of work, the prestigious Igor Ansoff Award was established in 1981 in The Netherlands. The award is given for research and management in the study of Strategic Planning and Management. The Japan Strategic Management Society has also established an annual award in his name and Vanderbilt University has established an Ansoff MBA scholarship.

An applied mathematician, he shifted his emphasis in the 1950s while employed by the Rand Corporation. In 1956, he was employed as planning specialist for Lockheed Aircraft Corporation where he gained practical experience in analyzing the complexities of a business environment. At Lockheed he became Vice President of Planning and Director of Diversification.

He served as Professor of Industrial Administration' in the Graduate School at Carnegie Mellon University (1963-1968); Founding Dean and Professor of Management at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (1968-1973); Professor at the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, Brussels, Belgium (1973-1975); Distinguished Justin Potter Professor of Free American Enterprise, Graduate School of Management, Vanderbilt University (1973-1976); Professor, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden (1976-1983), and Professor, United States International University, San Diego, California (1984-2001).

He died of complications from pneumonia in San Diego, California, on July 14, 2002.

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